8 About the authors
Charles A. Gruber, M.B.A., served as the chief of police in Shreveport, Louisiana and in three cities in Illinois. He is a past-president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and has served as a DoJ monitor for multiple consent decrees. He joined the AELE Board of Directors in 1990. Vita.
Wayne W. Schmidt, J.D., LL.M., has served as a police legal advisor since 1967. He was on the IACP professional staff for three years before joining the AELE staff in 1973. He has written thousands of case updates and legal articles for law enforcemen journals, and has authored or coauthored more than a hundred amicus curiae briefs filed in the Supreme Court of the United States. Vita.
9 Article review panel
This article was reviewed by nine independent panel members and the AELE board of directors (some of whom also serve on the MLJ review panel).